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Course Code: M3FY
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Course Code: M1C8
Why choose the School of Accounting, Finance and Law
Our BSc (Hons) Accounting and Finance is accredited by the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) and the Association of International Accountants (AIA)
You benefit from our links with finance and accounting’s ‘big four’ Ernst & Young, KPMG, PwC and Deloitte as well as professional bodies such as the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales (ICAEW)
Our Law courses are in the UK top 10 for graduate prospects - outcomes (CUG 2024)
About the course
Graduating with an LLB from the University of Bedfordshire is the first step on your journey towards becoming a solicitor or a barrister as well as a range of other professional opportunities. This LLB is for you if you have a particular interest in exploring the intersection between the law psychology and human behaviour.
The LLB is the undergraduate degree for all students wishing to pursue a career in law.
With this degree you study the core legal subjects all LLB undergraduates are required to study as well as relevant aspects of psychology such as psychology and criminal behaviour; psychology and mental health; social psychology; psychology and criminal justice; and forensic psychology in practice. These units provide you with a greater understanding of human behaviour alongside your law studies.
You learn from a dedicated team with professional experience in the legal industry and criminal justice system. You can also extend your in-class learning with a range of skill-building extra-curricular opportunities including our Law Clinic; award-winning Refugee Legal Assistance Project; and mooting programme.
Why choose this course?
- Our Law courses rank 5th for on-track graduate outcomes out of 99 HE institutions offering the subject (Complete University Guide 2023)
- Graduate with a qualification accredited by the Solicitors Regulation Authority and highly regarded by employers
- The course satisfies the requirements set by the Bar Standards Board for the academic component of Bar training. For further information go to the Bar Standards Board website
- Learn about law in practice and the foundations of psychology
- Complete a final-year dissertation that furthers your knowledge in a key area which interests you
- Develop your advocacy skills in our modern Moot Court giving you confidence in a realistic setting
- Gain skills in critical analysis research teamwork use of language and argument and the ability to work and learn independently
- Become an articulate knowledgeable individual able to present arguments in a clear persuasive and authoritative way
- If you need an entry route into degree-level study start with a Foundation Year which on completion guarantees your place on the degree course
with Professional Practice Year
This course has the option to be taken over four years which includes a year placement in industry. Undertaking a year in industry has many benefits. You gain practical experience and build your CV, as well as being a great opportunity to sample a profession and network with potential future employers.
There is no tuition fee for the placement year enabling you to gain an extra year of experience for free.
*Only available to UK/EU students.
with Foundation Year
A Degree with a Foundation Year gives you guaranteed entry to an Undergraduate course.
Whether you’re returning to learning and require additional help and support to up-skill, or if you didn’t quite meet the grades to pursue an Undergraduate course, our Degrees with Foundation Year provide a fantastic entry route for you to work towards a degree level qualification.
With our guidance and support you’ll get up to speed within one year, and will be ready to seamlessly progress on to undergraduate study at Bedfordshire.
The Foundation Year provides an opportunity to build up your academic writing skills and numeracy, and will also cover a range of subject specific content to fully prepare you for entry to an Undergraduate degree.
This is an integrated four-year degree, with the foundation year as a key part of the course. You will need to successfully complete the Foundation Year to progress on to the first year of your bachelor’s degree.
Why study a degree with a Foundation Year?
- Broad-based yet enough depth to give you credible vocational skills
- Coverage of a variety of areas typically delivered by an expert in this area
- Gain an understanding of a subject before choosing which route you wish to specialise in
- Great introduction to further study, and guaranteed progression on to one of our Undergraduate degrees
The degrees offering a Foundation Year provide excellent preparation for your future studies.
During your Foundation Year you will get the opportunity to talk to tutors about your degree study and future career aspirations, and receive guidance on the most appropriate Undergraduate course to help you achieve this; providing you meet the entry requirements and pass the Foundation Year.
- All our LLB courses satisfy the requirements set by the Bar Standards Board for the academic component of Bar training.
Course Leader - Dr Okechukwu Ejims
I am a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Law and Finance where I coordinate and teach varied commercial law courses at undergraduate and postgraduate levels.
I also supervise postgraduate dissertation students and PhD research students.
Course Leader - Dr Okechukwu Ejims
I am a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Law and Finance where I coordinate and teach varied commercial law courses at undergraduate and postgraduate levels.
I also supervise postgraduate dissertation students and PhD research students.
What will you study?
English Language Foundation
This unit focuses on your ability to understand and use the English language accurately when you read, speak, listen and write. We will concentrate on the English you need for undergraduate level study in your chosen subject area, covering grammar, subject area vocabulary and the four language skills of reading, writing, listening and speaking.
A key element of the unit is the grammar of the language, and particularly the verb tense system in English, because your ability to use the verb tense system accurately will be extremely important when you come to write essays and reports. This unit will focus in particular on the grammar of the language.
We will also focus on reading, listening and speaking skills in the context of your chosen subject area. Beginning with short texts, we will practise each skill and practise it again, so that gradually you will see, hear and feel that your command of the language is improving.
A recurring focus of the unit will be your acquisition of 'learner autonomy'. This means your ability to acquire the language yourself, without needing a teacher's help. This is important because from next year you will not have an English teacher to help you. So we will consider and practise strategies to help you gain confidence in your own ability to increase your knowledge of and ability to use the language, including for instance guessing meaning of difficult words, deciding which words are important in a text, recognising differences between formal and informal language, and other strategies, so that as the first semester continues, you begin to feel more confident in your use and experience with the English Language.
Academic Skills Foundation
When you begin your undergraduate level studies, you will be expected to have knowledge of and ability to use a large range of 'study skills'. You will also be expected to have some knowledge of the subject area you will be studying. This unit deals with both of these aspects of your preparation for undergraduate level study.
All of the academic skills are practised in English, so you will use your developing acquisition of the language from the partner unit 'English Language Foundation' to practise and gain mastery of these skills. You will also use your language and study skills as you learn the foundation of your subject area, putting the skills into practice as you learn.
Developing English Language Skills
This unit builds on the progress you made during its partner semester 1 unit 'English Language Foundation' and increasing your level from that which you had achieved by the end of semester 1.
We will recycle the tense system in English and other elements of the grammar system, but you will now learn how to use other aspects of the grammar, including the passive voice, as well as linking words and phrases and devices which enable you to write longer sentences but retain grammatical accuracy.
You will notice that we gradually introduce more specialist language that you need in preparation for your degree and we will expect you to use and develop the skills that you gained in the previous units so that you are able to work more independently.
Academic Skills Development
This unit builds on the skills learnt and practised in its partner semester 1 unit 'Foundation Academic Skills'. We will add more skills to the list, including summarizing and synthesising, argumentation, critical thinking and referencing and citation skills, as well as several others and practise and test them in the same way as with the semester 1 unit.
We will also investigate the research skill and you will learn how to prepare a research proposal and conduct a literature review, and how to plan a research project, learning about the research tools available and how they can be used to conduct research in your chosen field.
You will continue to broaden your knowledge of key current issues and theory in your chosen subject area, and apply the critical thinking and argumentation skills you acquire in this unit to argue for and against propositions you have studied in the form of in both essays and presentations and in seminar situations, ensuring that you are ready to step up to your chosen undergraduate course with a base level of subject area knowledge from which to continue your academic development as you progress to level 4 study.
Criminal Law is a core subject for the Qualifying Law Degree. Criminal Law identifies and analyses the circumstances in which individuals can be prosecuted and sanctioned for behaviour that is considered harmful to society, as well as circumstances in which these persons can plead particular defences that either excuse this criminal responsibility, or reduce it.
This unit provides you with an overview of the criminal process in England and Wales, the sources of criminal law, and provides you with a detailed understanding of the component elements of different crimes and the rules or principles that govern criminal liability of individuals and corporate entities. Throughout the unit, you will be exploring what forms of behaviour are to be determined as criminal, i.e. conduct that is subject to prosecution and sanction by the law, and the reasons for the legislature or criminal courts labelling this form of behaviour as “criminal.” These areas of inquiry are relevant as they allow you to understand the underpinning principles, core norms and social function of the criminal law, and to further situate this subject-specific knowledge into the wider social context by critically evaluating the wider influences shaping and developing the criminal law including the role of the legislature, judges and judicial policy. The unit maintains social currency as it enables you to gain practical insight into issues that relate the different areas of inquiry on this course to wider social concerns for maintenance of a rule of law that is fair to all who come before Criminal Courts.
We enter into agreements with other parties - individuals, businesses and other organisations - on a daily basis. Contract law is the basis of many other legal subjects and, although those subjects have developed specific rules, the law of contract nevertheless provides a background for them. It is therefore imperative for any Law student to understand not only how contracts are formed and regulated, but also the legal issues that may arise when contractual relationships break down and the remedies available to a claimant for breach of contract.
Through this unit, you will explore the underlying principles of contract law and the manner in which those principles operate to protect both businesses and consumers. You will learn how to apply abstract legal concepts to practical situations and how to research and analyse primary legal sources, case law and academic writing.
Contract law is a core subject required for the Qualifying Law Degree.
English Legal System
This unit aims to:
1. Provide students with a solid understanding of the working of the English Legal System, the concepts of statutory interpretation and judicial precedent and the roles of those who play a part in the legal system.
2. Provide students with the ability to use primary and secondary legal sources, including some electronic retrieval systems.
3. Provide students with the ability to evaluate the law whilst developing their skills of legal research, oral and written communication, group work, statistical analysis, reflective learning and study skills.
4. Students should also acquire a willingness to accept responsibility for their own learning and enable them to learn independently using their initiative and self-discipline.
Academic And Legal Skills
This unit aims to help students to develop:
- Academic skills, including in particular the ability to process information from a range of sources and to communicate clearly and effectively both orally and in writing;
- Professional legal skills, including the ability to find and use appropriate legal sources, to identify, read and re-present legal cases; and prepare and apply legal materials within a variety of professional and specific legal contexts;
digital skills, in particular those required in the legal sector;
- Professional awareness and the ability to reflect on their own practice and skills and identify strengths as well as areas for improvement.
Psychology And Criminal Behaviour
The unit will provide you with an introduction to the study of criminal behaviour, covering a basic grounding in some of the major issues, theories and research within the forensic psychology field. It will facilitate your understanding of the contexts (environmental, social and psychological) within which criminal behaviour occurs and the fundamental skills that are required of forensic psychologists in the assessment and rehabilitation of offenders.
The unit will explore theories of criminal behaviour and integrate criminal and forensic psychology into the knowledge of other areas of psychology to which you are being introduced in level 4 (e.g., biological, developmental, social and cognitive psychology, individual differences and research methods). Offender typologies and criminal-career paths for different types of offender (e.g., male, female, young, mentally disordered etc.) and different types of crime (violent, sexual, stalking, terrorism etc.) will be investigated.
Land law is a core subject for a Qualifying Law Degree. The key themes running through this unit involve an exploration of the nature of property and ownership and the range of rights which might exist in relation to land, how such rights are created and transferred and the impact these rights have upon third parties.
On this unit you will examine the concept of land, fixtures and fittings and things lost and found. There will be an introduction to Equity’s pervasive influence and the concept of the Trust. There will then follow a detailed examination of registered and unregistered land. The key theme here will be to establish if the current system of landholding gives effect to the traditional policy impetus of enabling the free alienability of land, or if this is hindered, the extent to which such obstacles are justified on grounds of protection of entrenched rights.
The unit will explore how Land Law is concerned not only with the physical but also the invisible but valuable rights which one person can enjoy over land which “belongs” to another. This will lead you to examine how these invisible rights such as easements, covenants, leases and mortgages are created and enforced. You will explore how the law has sought to strike a balance between the interests of the “owners” of these rights and the interests of the land which bears the burden of these interests. Finally, you will undertake a study of adverse possession both to establish how land might be acquired in this way, but also as an example of the historical nature of land law and that the very fundamentals of the subject appear to be undergoing a seismic change after the Land Registration Act 2002. The new system of adverse possession will be examined as an indicator of a change from possession to ownership and a fundamental change in the building blocks of this area of law. Thus you will gain an understanding of the key legal areas of land law and the technical requirements in these areas. In addition, the unit will explore the subject as a subject that is seeking to escape the shackles of its history and hence a broader understanding of the nature of legal change and the reasons for it will be presented as of central importance to this unit.
Law Of Tort
This unit is a core unit essential for a Qualifying Law Degree and aims to acquaint you with a broad critical knowledge of the nature and role of the Law of Tort and a consideration of those rights that Tort protects.
The Law of Tort is highly relevant to you, whether simply as a member of society (understanding your civil rights and liabilities) or as a solicitor or barrister specialising in personal injury and/or other civil law matters. The Law of Tort provides a remedy for social wrongs setting minimum standards of social conduct and protects your personal security, physical health, finances, reputation, land and property from unjust injury or interference by others.
Tort is a word derived from the Latin word “Tortus” which literally means twisted but came to refer to civil wrongs, as distinct from criminal wrongs. Hence, Tort includes claims arising in Negligence, Nuisance, Trespass, and Defamation to name a few. Winfield and Jolowicz on Tort state that “Tortious liability arises from a breach of a duty primarily fixed by law; this duty is towards persons generally and its breach is redressible by an action for unliquidated damages”.
You will be engaged with common law principles and will develop skills in critically analysing and evaluating case law and some statutes e.g. the Occupier’s Liability Acts 1957 and 1984. You will also explore your understanding of the role of Tort in its societal context in shifting the burden of losses from the victim to the tortfeasor or through insurance to the wider society and through a consideration of the public policy issues underpinning case law. The impact of the Human Rights Act 1998 in freeing the courts from the historical common law restrictions on developing the protection of interests will be integral to this study.
Constitutional And Administrative Law
Constitutional and Administrative Law is a core subject for the Qualifying Law Degree.
Constitutional law relates to the legal and political framework that establishes the state’s principal institutions responsible for running the country and defines the powers of these institutions. Administrative law refers to the legal powers and duties of public bodies, including the lawfulness of decisions made by public bodies about the rights and entitlements of individuals. Thus, as Webley and Samuels summarise, “constitutional law is the law that establishes the state and its institutions; administrative law is the law that these institutions use to run the country.”
The Constitutional and Administrative Law unit will provide you with a thorough grounding in both constitutional and administrative dimensions of Public Law. Under the constitutional law dimension of the topic, you will be introduced to constitutional principles and theories, the special nature of the UK constitution and the historical development that gives understanding to the UK’s constitution. The structure of government will be considered and the judicial system set out. The unit will also show how membership of the European Union and the Council of Europe impact on the UK’s constitution. Human rights and their relationship to the constitution will also be covered. Under the administrative law dimension, students will learn about the process of judicial review, the roles of administrative tribunals, inquiries, ombudsmen, and the way that human rights relates to administrative law. Throughout the study, relevant case law will be drawn on.
The unit aims to introduce you to the fundamental principles necessary to understand the foundations of Constitutional and Administrative Law at the theoretical level and bring that into today’s context. Historical, philosophical and political developments will be drawn on to this end. From this basic foundational platform, the unit will shift to the application of key Constitutional Law principles within the UK. The largest part of this unit will focus on the practical application of administrative law and its interaction with human rights law.
This unit will provide opportunities for you to both explore and engage with the norms and principles of Constitutional and Administrative Law as they apply to contemporary practical scenarios, and to develop a number of skills relevant to your future employability in the legal professions.
Psychology And Criminal Justice
This unit takes an in depth look at the role of psychology in the Criminal Justice System. The unit is designed to facilitate your understanding of the main components of the English and Welsh Criminal Justice System with some comparative perspectives provided in relation to other justice systems worldwide.
This unit focuses on psychological contributions to the processes of law-making, deterrence, enforcement, prosecution, court-processes and corrections. You will be provided with a framework to understand the role of psychologists and psychological research within the Criminal Justice System. The syllabus is based on current events, recent academic and Government research and the teaching team’s own research and experiences in practice. There is a focus on employability and you will gain an understanding of potential career opportunities in the field.
The unit integrates theory, research and practice providing you with an advanced understanding of key issues in psychology within Criminal Justice settings.
Equity And Trusts
This unit is core subject for a Qualifying Law Degree and aims to introduce you to the study of the nature and the function of the equitable jurisdiction with particular emphasis upon the nature, creation, purpose and enforcement of trusts.
In Land Law (Law001-2) you will have received a brief introduction to the nature of the equitable jurisdiction and the importance of distinguishing between legal and equitable rights. Here you will examine the origins of the equitable jurisdiction, how the jurisdiction differs from the common law system, and the historical and contemporary interaction between the two. You will gain an appreciation of the different guiding philosophy behind the equitable jurisdiction and hence will encounter a different mode of reasoning from the common law.
The key themes running through this unit are to explore the fundamental differences between common law and equity, the changing perspectives on these differences, the more flexible approach adopted by equity, and the need for any lawyer to understand the systemic totality of the outcome of the operation of both these systems of rules. To do this you will have to obtain a working knowledge of the technical language and concepts in this area. These key themes will be explored via practical and primary materials and a keen understanding that equity is a system which is constantly responding to societal change and the demands thereof.
Independent study and learning and the ability to provide informed critical analysis of complex practical issues are essential requirements for a Law graduate.
The dissertation unit offers you the opportunity to independently identify a current issue of public interest which you feel is deserving of in-depth legal analysis and to produce a substantial piece of legal writing which critically analyses and discusses that topic.
In order to produce a sound piece of legal research on your chosen topic, you will be required to analyse, synthesise and evaluate different primary sources, such as statutes, treaties, regulations, as well as to engage with relevant policy documents and academic literature.
The precise title of the dissertation will be negotiated between you and your supervisor, who will advise and guide you through the planning stage and throughout the various stages to completion of the final thesis.
Institutions Of The European Union And Judicial Protection
Despite the UK's withdrawal from the European Union, a solid understanding of the way in which EU institutions operate, and of EU Law more generally, remains an essential asset for anyone wishing to embark in a legal career.
This unit, together with the unit on Substantive Law of the EU which you will be studying in semester 2, aims at providing you with the knowledge and critical awareness of EU Law which will allow you to address the legal issues raised by the UK's withdrawal from the EU and its new position as a third State vis-a-vis the European project.
By studying this unit, you will develop an understanding of the way in which the European project has developed throughout the years and of the foundational principles and values of the European legal order.
The unit will provide you with an understanding of the insitutional framework of the EU, the role and powers of EU institutions, its law-making processes, its judicial system and the key principles of the law regulating the external relations of the EU.
Substantive Law Of The European Union And Human Rights
This unit will give you an overview of the key substantive aspects of EU Law, including the principles govening the EU internal market and the protection of fundamental rights within the European Union.
The first part of the unit will deal with the rules concerning the internal market, and in particular the so-called “four freedoms” (freedom of movement of goods, persons, services and capitals) and the notion of EU citizenship.
The second part of the unit will deal with the protection of fundamental rights within the EU system, with particular focus on the relevant general principles of EU law, the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, and the ongoing debate on the accession of the EU to the European Convention on Human Rights.
Together with the unit on Institutions of the EU, which you will have studied in Semester 1, this unit will improve your ability to deal with the legal issues raised by the UK's withdrawal from the EU as a result of Brexit and its new position as a third State entering into new trade and political relationships with the EU.
Applied Forensic Psychology
In this unit you will study the application of psychology to offenders post-sentencing. This will include the consideration of assessment practices which are necessary in order to determine the appropriateness of particular treatments, level of risk posed by the (ex)offender or the success of an intervention with particular offenders. Additionally, you will investigate and evaluate different treatment and rehabilitation programmes; both those delivered in custodial settings, and those undertaken as part of a community sentence or as relapse prevention following release from custody.
We will cover the main scientific and practical skills needed by psychologists in the field of forensic work including issues related to the evaluation of rehabilitative interventions, the preparation of reports, and assessment techniques. In relation to risk assessment we will also consider how assessment informs the management and amelioration of risk.
Further, you will gain a theoretical understanding of a range of advanced research designs and methods of data analysis that are likely to be employed in these contexts (e.g. meta-analysis, factor analysis, reliability & validity etc.). We will also cover the research and practical ethical issues and debates in Forensic Psychology, as well as developing an awareness of professional skills that are required in practice for employability.
You will find that the topics in this unit complement those of the previous two units studied as part of the Forensic Psychology degree. In particular this focuses more on the typical work of most Forensic Psychologists who tend to work within the prison system. However, the skills that you will develop whilst studying this unit will be equally transferable to a range of other occupational positions within or around the criminal justice system.
Family And Child Law
The unit focuses on the legal framework regulating adult relationships and that regulating children's life situations in the context of family, state and society.
In the first part of the unit, you will explore the law and practice relating to formal and informal adult relationships, family property and division of property following the divorce or dissolution of civil partnership, as well as legal issues relating to domestic violence. The second part of the unit covers the law and practice relating to, inter alia, the relationship between parents and children, parental responsibility, children rights, child protection, adoption. In this context, particular attention will be devoted to the UN Convention on the Right of the Child and the way in which the obligations arising from the Convention have been incorporated in the UK legal system.
This unit provides you with the necessary knowledge of Family Law needed to fulfil the role of a paralegal (NALP).
How will you be assessed?
The course has been carefully designed to develop a wide range of academic legal and practical skills including by giving you the opportunity to engage with a varied range of assessment methods. A developing range of assessments will enable you to grow in confidence and demonstrate your acquisition of knowledge and skills.
The assessment methods used across the course include:
- Written assignments: These may vary from short essays and reports to more in-depth research work on broader topics to problem questions and case studies which will require you to apply your legal knowledge to a `real life scenario. These assessments will test your ability to analyse an issue to conduct research to collect relevant materials to assess the quality of the materials and to synthesise them into a scholarly answer.
- Examinations: These will test your ability to convey your knowledge and understanding of a topic and to demonstrate your skills of analysis and evaluation in a time-sensitive manner.
- Oral presentations: Aimed at developing your public-speaking skills and testing your verbal and presentational skills in communicating information in a professional setting. Mooting activities will test your ability to carry out research and present your findings in a persuasive and authoritative manner. They will also introduce the practical skills of court etiquette and procedure.
In the final year of your course the dissertation unit will allow you to undertake a complex research project in a subject area of your choosing. With the support of your supervisor you will be expected to formulate a relevant and viable research question. The project will allow you to further develop your legal research skills and the ability to communicate knowledge findings and recommendations.
For students who aim to get into the legal professions this course is your first step towards professional qualification to become a solicitor or to practice at the Bar.
Even without acquiring further professional qualifications the course provides a solid foundation for access to a range of graduate roles in the legal sector for instance as a paralegal or member of court staff; in the civil service (whether in local or central government); or in third-sector organisations working with offenders and victims of crime.
Alongside these career tracks the course prepares you for a career in a broader range of graduate roles within the criminal justice system including in the police prison administration and other law enforcement agencies.
In addition by allowing you to explore psychology alongside your qualifying law degree it will open up career opportunities in a range of other professional areas including youth justice and youth work; victim support and mental health advocacy; and the charity sector.
This course will also provide you with the necessary research and critical analysis skills which you will need if you choose to pursue further study at Master’s level and beyond.