Preparing your manuscript

Text format

You can use any font but if you are submitting in hard copy please don't use anything too zany and use at least 11pt. If you are submitting in hard copy, please use double-spacing throughout, including quotations, footnotes and references, with at least 25mm margins all round. Page numbers should be included at the bottom right of each page. (If you are submitting in hard copy and your paper is accepted, we will ask for an electronic copy in due course.)


Footnotes should be kept to the minimum required. Please do not use footnotes to provide bibliographical references (these should be at the end of your paper). Footnotes must be numbered consecutively. Where extended background is required, the information can be included as an appendix, with a reference to the appendix placed appropriately in the text.


Please check quotations carefully for accuracy, and page numbers from source material must be supplied. All insertions into the original text should be displayed in square brackets, for example, 'he [Magoo] regards…'


Italics in the original must be shown. Any additional emphasis in quoted matter should be indicated in the manuscript by adding the phrase '(my italics)' in round brackets after the quotation. Three dots should be used for indicating omissions in the quoted text, for example, 'This…is a good idea'.


Please use Harvard referencing. 

For example...

References in the text are given by quoting the author's name followed by the year of publication in round brackets, for example, Magoo (2008) or (Magoo, 2008). If two co-authors are cited, both names should be given, for example, Magoo and Ripe (2009) or (Magoo and Ripe, 2009). If more than two co-authors are cited, the reference in the text should take the form of, for example, Magoo et al. (2010) or (Magoo et al., 2010).

Reference to works cited in the text should be given at the end of the paper. Authors are listed in the references in alphabetical order, and their works in chronological order of the date of publication. If more than one work published in the same year by an author is listed, these should be followed by a, b, c etc. When an author is listed both as a single and as a (first) co-author, references to single authorship should precede joint ones.

Please capitalise titles as in the original source material.

Books - Original works (list all authors up to a maximum of 3, if more than 3 add 'et al.'): Surname First initial (Date of publication) Title of book. Place of publication: Name of publisher.

Reference to a volume in multivolume works: Surname First initial (Date) Title of multivolume work. Vol. 1: Name of specific volume. Place of publication: Name of publisher.

Reference to a chapter in a collected work: Surname First initial (Date of publication) Title of chapter. In: Editor's surname First initial (ed.) Title of volume, p. <this page – that page>. Place of publication: Name of publisher.

Journals/Publications - Standard article (list all authors up to a maximum of 3, if more than 3 add 'et al.'): Surname First initial (Date of publication) Name of article. Name of journal. Journal number: p. <this page – that page>.

Web (example only) - All about chocolate [Internet]. Vienna, VA: National Confectioners Association (NCA); ©1999-2004 [accessed 24 March 2007]. Available from:

Further information

Please email if you have any other queries.


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University of Bedfordshire
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